has a long history, going back over to 3 thousand years, ruled by Emperors
and their dynasties. During 1200 China was invaded by the Mongols from
Mongolia and was ruled by Kablai Khan, the era was known as the Yuan
Dynasty. Mongols were the first foreign invaders who ruled China for several
years. By the mid-1300s, the Yuan dynasty gave way to the Ming dynasty. Then
in the mid-1600s, Manchurian troops overthrew the Ming dynasty to establish
the Qing dynasty. In the early 1900s, the country came out from the power of
dynasty rule to create the Peoples Republic of China. In the 1930s, China
came under control of a communist government.
With a rich history dating back to over 3500 years, China is one of the
oldest civilizations of the world, which is still in existing. A highly
evolved system of bureaucratic authority advanced by the changing dynasties
and fundamental doctrines put this provincial civilization in a better place
than its bordering gypsy.
The enigma the countrys diverse local languages and dialects were
overcome by the introduction of a common written language.
The First Opium War
The First Opium War exploded out in 1840 when Britain persisted for the
illegal opium trade in the territories of China whereas the China prohibited
this narcotic drug. With China losing the war, Britain and other Western
powers with the United States gained special commercial privileges over the
country. Under the Treaty of Nanking, 1842, Hong Kong was handed to Britain
and when the Opium Wars finally came to an end in 1898, Britain brought
about a 99-year lease of the New Territories substantially enlarging the
Hong Kong region.
Great -- People's Republic of China
On October 1, 1949 the founding of the People's Republic of China
was certified in Beijing. A new political and economic regime was instated,
built on the pattern of Soviet society. During 1950s the government launch
upon a tremendous economic and social indemnification. Steps were taken to
restraint inflation, mending the economy and reconstructing the war-damaged
industrial plants and regions. In the process the government acquired a
tremendous support from its people.
Communism Society Started Shaking
In the early 1960s State President Liu Shaoqi and his party General
Secretary Deng Xiaoping took over the reigns and adopted realistic economic
policies, which clashed with Mao's vision. Dissatisfied with the new
developments Mao launched a massive political attack on Liu, Deng and other
pragmatists in 1966. The new movement, the "Great Proletarian Cultural
Revolution, was aimed at gathering opposition against ruling leaders.
Beijing citizens headed an unpremeditated demonstration in Tiananmen Square
in Zhou's memory with strong political resonance in support of Deng. The
demonstration was forcibly suppressed by the commanders. Deng was condemned
for the disarray and thrown out of all official positions although he
retained his party membership.
The country came into the strong grip of the great political and social
revolution, which lasted for almost a decade.
The Development of the Economy in 1980s
In 1980 the reformist Sichuan party chief Zhao Ziyang and as party General
Secretary took over the charge. The reform policies brought great
improvements in the standard of living especially for urban workers and for
farmers. Literature and the arts blossomed and Chinese intellectuals
established extensive links with scholars in other countries. At the same
time however political dissent as well as social problems such as inflation
urban migration and prostitution emerged.
Chinese Students Protest
In 1989 there were growing economic hardship caused by high inflation set
the ground for a large-scale protest movement by students intellectuals and
other parts of a disaffected urban population. University students and other
citizens in Beijing camped out at Tiananmen Square to protest against those
who slowed reform. Protests also spread to many other cities including
Shanghai and Guangzhou.
Martial law was declared on May 20 1989, military units were deployed in
Beijing. Demonstrators were suppressed brutally, most observers believe that
casualties numbered in the hundreds.
The entire world expressed horror at the brutal suppression of the
demonstrators, the central government eliminated opposition, held in custody
large numbers of protesters and urged for required political re-education
not only for students but also for party cadre and government officials.
China Rule in New World
After the death of Deng in 1997, President Jiang Zemin and other members
slowly took over control of the day-to-day functions of government. This "third
generation" leadership governed collectively with President Jiang at
the center. In 2003, Hu Jintao replaced Jiang as the President.
Communist China is progressively reaching to the outside world. Amendments
of state industries have been recognized as a topmost preference of the
government and as a result massive scale privatization of unavailing
state-owned endeavor are coming into being.